A bulk material handling system’s main job is to transfer and provide bulk materials to processing plant units on a continuous basis. Storage and mixing are examples of secondary functions.
Raw materials like powders and bulk solids are collected by trucks, ships, or trains in a typical bulk material handling system. Then, using a conveyor system, they are unloaded into a yard or warehouse. Typically, the materials are kept in stockpiles.
An automated reclaimer or a gravity-reclaim arrangement comprising reclaim feeders and tunnel hoppers can be used to reclaim materials from the stockpile. The material is subsequently transported to a processing facility. This is applicable for most systems, whether used in processing or to move or store a finished bulk product.
A belt conveyor is one of the most common types of bulk material handling equipment. While there are many other conveyors, like screw, chain, and pneumatic, the belt is the most widely utilized.
In many different processing industries, belt conveyors constitute the backbone of these systems. Hoppers, stacker/reclaimer machines, chutes, feeders, and magnetic separators are examples of other material handling equipment. Learn more on this link https://www.processingmagazine.com/material-handling-dry-wet/article/15586935/bulk-material-handling-systems-all-you-need-to-know.
The role of the belt conveyor in bulk material handling systems
A belt conveyor, designed for regular flow, can be used for a wide variety of capacities and lengths. Its length can range from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The belt loops around a pulley at each end of the conveyor. It is the most frequent type of belt conveyor.
To rotate the belt and carry the materials, one pulley (typically at the conveyor’s head) is attached to a drive unit. Conveyors with 3 or more pulleys, as well as those with two or even more drive pulleys, are also available. They are, however, most commonly utilized in specialized applications.
The belt, which serves two purposes in belt conveyors, is used to confine conveyed items and to transmit force to transport the load. A belt conveyor is among the most expensive parts. Incautious selection, many elements should be considered, including the materials to be managed, impact, corrosion, strength, tension, and elongation.
The primary belt conveyor components, such as rollers, idlers, pulleys, shafts, bearings, and belts, must work under dynamic loads and extreme conditions to preserve reliability. As a result, if they are poorly designed or produced, they are likely to fail often. Rolling element bearings are commonly used in numerous equipment. They can have a limited life, even as little as a few months, if they are subjected to dynamic or unexpected stresses that are not acceptable for their design. Shafts are comparable to shafts. Learn more on this page.
Belts could also be severely damaged when subjected to loads that are not adequate for their design, when exposed to corrosion, or when used in situations that are not appropriate for their material. Conveyor belt design, operation, and dependability must take into account a variety of other elements. Dust and pollutants, for example, are common in processing areas.
This gear can be harmed and ruined if better seals are not for bearings and other components. On the other hand, if all of these components are designed properly and chosen, they can provide years of trouble-free service.
The drive unit of a conveyor can be designed in various ways for bulk material handling systems. A direct-coupled motor gearbox or a parallel-shaft drive, working the drum via a suitably sized coupling, are used in traditional designs.
Startup capacity, especially the demand for a startup at full load (when the conveyor is completely loaded with materials), is an important issue to consider when designing and sizing drive units. A fluid coupling is used on many medium and small conveyors to make starting and transient operations easier. Variable speed drives are commonly used on big and also massive conveyors.
The motorized drum is another concept that has lately been employed for some conveyors. The electric motor, gear unit, and bearings constitute a full driving unit inside the drum shell of the sprocket, which provides protection. This device powers the belt immediately, removing the need for an additional motor and coupling required in traditional setups. They’re very popular in newly refurbished and remodeled apartments.
Conveyors must be light in weight in general, rendering the motorized drum design a desirable choice. However, conveyors have some benefits and drawbacks. For some purposes, they provide compact and stronger drive units. Accessibility and upkeep, on the other hand, may be challenging, and there are some design and size limitations.
Motorized drums with a diameter of up to 900 millimeters and a power of 150 kilowatts have been manufactured as approximate hints. Generally, motorized drum units are unique designs that should be employed in areas where traditional drive systems are useless or inconvenient. Other than that, traditional patterns should be employed.